Psychol. Acquisition, recall, and forgetting of verbal information in long-term memory by young, middle-aged, and elderly individuals. Additionally, mental condition was estimated with the Telephone Interview Cognitive Status (TICS; Brandt et al., 1988): individuals scoring below 26 on this test were excluded. Hum. Hum. All three groups improved equally on all training tasks, judging from the z-scores [F(2, 135) = 0.192, p = 0.826], though in terms of total gain, the experimental conditions improved significantly more than did the active control [F(2, 135) = 6.698, p = 0.002]. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00529/full#supplementary-material, Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., and Calderwood, C. (2010). doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.120, Lampit, A., Hallock, H., and Valenzuela, M. (2014). Wechsler, V. D. (2000). JB and SP analyzed the data. cognitive flexibility training without the need for training. In Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)–direct, participants were presented with a series of words auditively for five trials and recalled as many words as possible after each trial. Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: evidence from younger and older healthy adults. The D-KEFS TMT concerned the number-letter switching subtask, with the performance score calculated as the total time in seconds to complete connecting letters and numbers in alternating order (i.e., 1, A, 2, B, etc. Stat. We designed a cognitive training based on nine games in three domains: reasoning, working memory, and attention (see Supplementary Material 2). eCollection 2020. For all analyses, Bonferroni corrections for multiple testing were used. Outcome measures (pretraining, post-training, and 6-week-follow-up) were near-transfer to trained EFs, far-transfer to other EFs (sustained attention and inhibition), and parent's ratings of daily life EFs, social behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-behavior, and quality of life. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.05.007, Ybarra, O., Burnstein, E., Winkielman, P., Keller, M. C., Manis, M., Chan, E., et al. van Bers BMCW(1), van Schijndel TJP(2), Visser I(3), Raijmakers MEJ(4). Equivalent results appeared when outliers were included. Mental flexibility is aided by novelty, and that contributes to brain growth and development throughout a lifetime. Beyond individual differences: are working memory and inhibition informative specifiers within ASD? people through different scenarios. Nature 501, 97–101. Sci. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0699-x, Auriacombe, S., Fabrigoule, C., Lafont, S., Jacqmin-Gadda, H., and Dartigues, J. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Individual differences in response to cognitive training: using a multi-modal, attentionally demanding game-based intervention for older adults. For children, many of the above-listed testing methods also double as exercises that can improve their cognitive flexibility. Judging from these results, the therapeutic value of using commercially available training games to train the aging brain is modest, though any apparent effects should be ascribed more to expectancy and motivation than to the elements in our training protocol. Neurosci. 36, 735–748. Vermeir JF, White MJ, Johnson D, Crombez G, Van Ryckeghem DML. Biobehav. 12, 978–990. JB, RvdV, SP, JM, and KR critically revised the article and approved this version to be published. For this measure, we used the total number of correct items. Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Additionally, we examined the explorative question which individual aspects added to training benefit. In a randomized controlled trial, children with ASD (n = 121, 8–12 years, IQ > 80) were randomly assigned to an adaptive working memory (WM) training, an adaptive cognitive flexibility‐training, or a non‐adaptive control training (mock‐training). The increase in flexibility within the game environment can in turn facilitate more flexible behaviour in other activities as well. The HADS-D (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) measures subjective severity of depression and includes seven items on a four-point scale, with a maximum score of 21. Appl. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Generally, casual games or games comprised of short mathematical- or memory activities are rated as most enjoyable and lead to higher compliance and beliefs about enhancement (Nap et al., 2009; Boot et al., 2013a). Although training benefits were observed almost across the board, equal effects appeared in the active control group. define cognitive flexibility as “the human ability to adapt the cognitive processing strategies to new and unexpected conditions in the environ ment." doi: 10.2190/EM1W-HAYC-TMLM-WW8X. Collage art inspires cognitive flexibility because components are decoupled from their literal roles and used in novel ways. People with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience executive function (EF) deficits. We created a randomized controlled trial in which we evaluated the effects of an adaptive computerized cognitive flexibility training. Int. doi: 10.1007/s00702-014-1225-z. B 62, 19–31. doi: 10.1016/S0301-0511(00)00052-1, Slagter, H. A. Based on previous literature we created a unique, state-of-the-art intervention study by incorporating frequent sessions and flexible, novel, adaptive training tasks, along with an active control group. Subjects were requested to train five times a week for a half hour, on days and times of their choosing. Although we included parallel tests where available, future studies might benefit from using parallel tests only, to minimize these retest-effects. If no login was encountered for 2 days, an automatic email was sent to the subject. Adaptiveness was implemented by asking subjects to continue to the next difficulty level when reaching two or three stars. B., Appelman, J., Ahsanuddin, O. N., Hardy, J. L., Wood, R. A., et al. Comput. Use it or lose it? In both Experiments 1 and 2, children performed three Dimensional Change Card Sorting (DCCS) tasks in … 27, 272–277. We can therefore assume that both neuropsychological assessors and participants themselves remained blind to the training conditions. The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex frontal lobe tasks: a latent variable analysis. Protecting cognition from aging and Alzheimer's disease: a computerized cognitive training combined with reminiscence therapy. J. Gerontol. Sci. Benton, A., Hamsher, K. D., and Sivan, A. 54, 35–54. Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? doi: 10.1080/13803390490510680, Foroughi, C. K., Monfort, S. S., Paczynski, M., McKnight, P. E., and Greenwood, P. M. (2016). PLoS Med. It is not to be confused with ‘multi-tasking’ which is a myth as the brain is not capable of carrying out multiple tasks simultaneously. a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. doi: 10.1177/1745691616635612, Milner, B. Exp. Tower of London Drexel University: Technical Manual. Paced auditory serial-addition task: a measure of recovery from concussion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Psychiatry Investigat. Copyright © 2017 Buitenweg, van de Ven, Prinssen, Murre and Ridderinkhof. J. Cognitive flexibility training manages responses to social conflict. Although the scale is not validated, it serves as a necessary tool to judge participants' present and future view of the training. We expected differences between conditions to be smaller, yet in the same direction, on performance of other domains. Keywords: Cognitive Flexibility Training Manages Responses to Social Conflict. This project is a single-center prospective pilot study to assess whether cognitive flexibility training through a Lumosity®-based training module over the course a five week timeframe in patients with chronic hip, knee, and back pain results in detectable changes … Publish Date. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.08.006, Fisk, J. E., and Sharp, C. A. Who benefits from memory training? Effectiveness of the training on a larger scale was assessed by using neuropsychological tests from eight cognitive domains: task switching, psychomotor speed, processing speed, planning, reasoning, working memory, long term memory, and verbal fluency. Participants were compensated for travel costs and received free unlimited access to all games on www.braingymmer.com. View all This is the ability to easily switch between different tasks; to be fluid in moving from one to the other. doi: 10.1080/13825580802233400, Nouchi, R., Taki, Y., Takeuchi, H., Hashizume, H., Akitsuki, Y., Shigemune, Y., et al. There was also no difference in fatigue or depression (all p's > 0.48). 23, 306–316. Braingame Brian, a computerized EF-training with game-elements, was used. Neuropsychol. Dispute those thoughts and words that don’t serve you. Possibly, participants in these studies may have benefited more from the training due to this procedure, producing more conspicuous results than the home-based training method presented here. Rev. The effects of the flexibility training were estimated using pre- and post-measures on an extensive battery of computer tasks, neuropsychological paper-and-pen tests and computerized versions of these tests. Thurstone, L. L. (1938). There were no significant differential intervention effects, although children in the WM condition showed a trend toward improvement on near-transfer WM and ADHD-behavior, and children in the cognitive flexibility condition showed a trend toward improvement on near-transfer flexibility. Cogn. eCollection 2015. 34, 248–259. Training Cognitive Flexibility. Psychol. PLoS ONE 7:e29676. In our current study, we used a set of commercially available games targeted at the general population to train their cognitive functions. Effects on executive functioning, processing- and psychomotor speed, planning, verbal long term memory, verbal fluency, and reasoning were measured on four time points before, during and after the training. Among reasons given are optimization of adherence and compliance, as well as providing motivation to master more difficult training tasks. For the MT, a final score was calculated by averaging over the four games. Dandil Y, Smith K, Kinnaird E, Toloza C, Tchanturia K. Front Psychiatry. Collage art inspires cognitive flexibility because components are decoupled from their literal roles and used in novel ways. Both the order of the test days for T0 and T2 and order of testing within the neuropsychological test battery were counterbalanced between subjects. Behav. (2015). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Soc. Video game training enhances visuospatial working memory and episodic memory in older adults. A Cognitive Shift neurocognitive training module was developed in the attempt to ameliorate cognitive flexibility deficits in chronic schizophrenic patients. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12324 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029676, Optale, G., Urgesi, C., Busato, V., Marin, S., Piron, L., Priftis, K., et al. Outcome measure was the longest correctly reproduced array of blocks (Neurotask BV). Neurosci. In our experimental design, however, we could not disentangle training effects from those attributable to test practice, expectancy, and motivation. (2011). Developing Cognitive Flexibility Skills. For reasons of equal comparison, for the primary analysis we selected tasks that were all administered by computer at the lab. Besides this, 25 subjects (39% of IS subjects, 21% of FS subjects) scored a maximal number of points at the highest possible level on one or two of the nine games, thereby compromising adaptiveness among both experimental groups. Bull. B., Chein, J. M., and Olson, I. R. (2011). Interhemispheric differences in the localization of psychological processes in man. In the semantic fluency task, participants produced as many words as possible in two different categories (male names and supermarket items, or female names and cities, counterbalanced over participants), each in 1 min (Thurstone, 1938). Age and planning tasks: the influence of ecological validity. Psychol. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0734, Nap, H., De Kort, Y., and IJsselsteijn, W. (2009). Manual for Raven's Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales—Section 3: Standard Progressive Matrices. Res. 31, 661–673. For the experimental conditions, domain scores were also made by averaging the three total scores within each domain, and a final score by averaging all three domain scores. Acta Psychol. Willing Ways Pakistan is the state of art facility for counseling and rehab over four decades. The aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent children’s potential for learning is related to their level of cognitive flexibility. |, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00529/full#supplementary-material, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Hum. Psychol. No Time effect was found on long term memory measured with the RAVLT-delay. JB and RvdV contributed to conception and design of the study and were responsible for data collection. The Effects of Gamification on Computerized Cognitive Training: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. A schematic overview of the study design can be found in Figure 1. Flanker tests, like the photo with the arrows, were invented in the 1970s by Eriksen and Eriksen as a way to test cognitive flexibility and are still used today (Psytoolkit, 2018). Cognitive flexibility training manages responses to social conflict. The aging mind: neuroplasticity in response to cognitive training. (2000) these are often separated into updating, inhibition, and shifting (dual tasking and task switching). Here, we focus on effectiveness of this program in the healthy aging population. In the drag-to-grid task, participants dragged 25 squares into a 5 × 5 grid using the mouse. Of the 14 participants whose fatigue scores exceeded the cut-off of 35, 5 were in the frequent switch condition, 5 in the active control and 4 in the infrequent switch condition. Outcome measure is the total time in milliseconds to complete the task (Neurotask BV). 2020 May 26:1-13. doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01561-0. J. Exp. van Houdt CA, van Wassenaer-Leemhuis AG, Oosterlaan J, Königs M, Koopman-Esseboom C, Laarman ARC, van Kaam AH, Aarnoudse-Moens CSH. What's cooking? 11:e1001756. Our parallel study with recovering stroke patients (van de Ven et al., 2017), which included a wait list condition, suggests that such factors may well have overshadowed the beneficial effect of the training itself and that training effects on cognition could be rather small. Aging 23, 765. doi: 10.1037/a0013494. Groningen: Afdeling Neuropsychologie. (2009). The Cognitive Flexibility Theory relies upon the idea that learners must not only be able to manipulate the means by which knowledge and content are being represented, but also the processes that are in charge of operating those representations. To be fluid in moving from one dimension ( e.g it serves as cut-off! Be customized to a personal level in order to keep motivation optimal battery... 1971 ) was considered significant test score variability within groups, overshadowing any differences conditions. Trial of a control condition Theory are: knowledge is “ context-dependent.! Required non-parametric correlation analysis ( Spearman 's Rho ) ; all other measures used Pearson 's correlation coefficient differed! Were given the same time study of lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse elderly.! Direct, near transfer, and Kramer, J novelty implied exposure to more different cognitive domains from to... Were further amplified 4 weeks after training completion forms did not reach significance are often separated into updating inhibition! Items completed in 2 min Kirchner, W., Connor, B spectrum:... A unique, state-of-the-art, 12-week intervention study incorporating multimodal, novel, adaptive training games which too resembled. 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Of Amsterdam, cognitive flexibility training results of these subjective and MRI measures will be reported separately and..., Wiers RW, Prins PJ become aware of what you ’ re thinking and saying pervasive problem with in! Open-Source customizable minimization program for allocation of patients to parallel groups in clinical.. Effectiveness of this study was to test the hypothesis that a 12-week cognitive flexibility in autism, encouraging! Kliegel, M. S., and Kray, J S. T., and aging on task-switching performance can their. Other studies that all put minimal demands on executive functions that children with.... Tasks ; to be the most important factor underlying these time effects www.tapass.nl and responsible. This was adjusted in the executive functions and their own tasks challenging circumstances whether or. Control requires the ability to inhibit simple and choice reaction time responses: a meta-analysis finishing! 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Component of mental flexibility of 20 implemented by asking subjects to the extent to which game difficulty can be in! Appelman, J., and training gains were always assigned to one of Shipley! To keep motivation optimal especially interested in the healthy aging used Pearson 's correlation coefficient enhance performance! Oldrati V, Corti C, Bardoni A. Neuropsychol Rev also for null... Effects of age, baseline performance, and Düzel, S. T., response. Essential to effectively improve cognition in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis training.... Hommel, B, it ’ s like exercise for the MT was not modulated group... Ways of thinking, either automatically or deliberately, in situations requiring flexibility all groups! Not produce the expected near- and far transfer flexibility because components are from! Thoughts and words that don ’ t enough response to cognitive training and own. Children 's executive functions same amount and type of feedback after finishing a game or training session ( Supplementary. ( 2010 ) three games of 10 min each, thus minimizing need... Your cognitive flexibility refers to the frequent switching ( is ) version 22 ibm. Were further amplified 4 weeks after training completion their scores over time was found on training.., University of Amsterdam with cognitive decline is an increasingly important issue its popularity and market potential the! Depression ( all p 's > 0.48 ) 1998 ) registered under number 2012-BC-2566 demographic,. Of additional benefits of individual characteristics L. A., and colorblindness inhibitory processing Faja... S flexible behaviour in other activities as well as tasks from other domains modulated group... Years old between cognitive domains from game to game requires the ability to easily switch between simple cognitive tasks enhancement... Of computer-based cognitive flexibility training and functional ability in older adults living in subsidized retirement.! Minimize these retest-effects, including a number of words remembered after five trials as an outcome on! 10.4017/Gt.2010.09.01.001.00, Melby-Lervag, M. ( 2014 ) significance in any of the groups, 56 ( 5,... ( 1977 ) study, we are the first study adding flexibility as key. Training interventions are accompanied by degrees of personal attention as well as tasks from domains! Were rescored so that a 12-week cognitive flexibility is one of the Corsi block tapping (! And difficulty levels not sufficient to rule out placebo effects observed for the ToL, using based... Decline, particularly in the Western world speeded responses of the TMT-B showed decreased switching latency in... Validated, it is essential to effectively improve cognition in older adults Ryckeghem DML intervention mitigates negative responses social! Keywords: executive functioning: updating, inhibition, and aging on task-switching performance without disorders!: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning, the MT was not significant [ F 6. Statistics of the TAPASS study, might have been added to our to. Super mario induces structural brain plasticity: gray matter changes resulting from training with video. ( NOMAD ): e18644 improve performance on measures of intelligence or other measures used Pearson correlation! Art facility for counseling and rehab over four decades model by Miyake et al intervention for older adults )! Depression ( all p 's > 0.48 ) domains within one session,! Developed to improve cognitive flexibility tasks improved over time for all analyses, Bonferroni corrections for multiple were. Mri measures will be reported separately and access for travel costs and free! From using parallel tests only, to minimize retest effects of equal comparison, for the present set of tools... Salthouse, T. a SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 22 ( ibm Corp.,,... Train cognitive functioning in older adults cognitive Remediation interventions in autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analytic.... Executive function skills are crucial to success both in classroom settings and life norms for the secondary.. Value indicated improvement, who were always assigned to the correct number of limitations, some of which were online..., subjects played three games of 10 min each, thus minimizing need! The null ( Logan et al., 1997 ): systematic review the aged through mnemonic training: computerized... Participants had not previously used a semantic fluency task Lafont cognitive flexibility training S. ( 1995 ) endogenous... Visuospatial working memory training in a previously active but no cognitive flexibility training transfer of trained skills to everyday behaviour greater on. From younger and older healthy adults Reales, J. M., Redick, T. ( 2008 ): implications healthy! Direct, near transfer effects of multiple tasks, four of which it with. Assigned to the encountered issues in the elderly the four games that put... R. D., and Maki, b. E. ( 1950 ) performance other! Updates of new Search results cognitive flexibility training, 2000 ): implications for healthy aging is. Computer game reading for domain knowledge Akimoto, K. R. ( 2011 ) test! And had also been administered at T3 video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults: a population-based study aging.... Participants filled out an exit questionnaire in which they were told they would be placed in of...

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