This book is about why they often go wrong, and why we are so bad at understanding the strangers we come across. La Malinche, language translator for Hernán Cortés. Aware of this, Montezuma had already sent him a number of gifts to show his wealth and power. Moctezuma bade him welcome and our Cortés replied through Doña Marina, who he always had at his side, wishing him very good health. What happened when Hernán Cortés sailed from Spain to Mexico and met Montezuma? And, you’ll begin to notice the patterns by which those strategies fail. In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses “the Meeting”—as Restall dubs their first encounter—as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. He afterwards came again to this country, after the lapse of much time, and found that his people had intermarried with the native inhabitants, by whom they had many children, and had built towns in which they resided; and when he desired them to return with him, they were unwilling to go, nor were they disposed to acknowledge him as their sovereign; so he departed from the country, and we have always heard that his descendants would come to conquer this land, and reduce us to subjection as his vassals; and according to the direction from which you say you have come, namely, the quarter where the sun rises, and from what you say of the great lord or king, who sent you hither, we believe and are assured that he is our natural sovereign, especially as you say that it is a long time since you first had knowledge of us. Either way, Montezuma always comes across as a diminished ruler, even a puppet. Sign up for a free trial here. In Restall’s telling, Montezuma’s monumental miscalculation—allowing Cortés into Tenochtitl á n—led not only to his own demise but also to the end of his empire. Thereupon, Cortés took Moctezuma by the hand and led him by it. You’ll begin to see where those strategies came from. One answer to this question lies in the difference between the way Cortés and Montezuma communicated, based on their cultural tradition. The Meeting of Cortés and Montezuma Painted in the latter half of the seventeenth century in Mexico by unknown artists, the eight paintings in the Conquest of Mexico series depict the encounter of Spanish and Aztec cultures and The True Story of the Meeting that Changed History, When Montezuma Met Cortes, Matthew Restall, Ecco. Cortés later melted these down for their monetary value. Montezuma was in the courtyard of the palace of Axayacatl waiting to receive Cortes and his train. The two leaders, Cortés and Montezuma, knew absolutely nothing about each other’s language, civilization, or cultural nuances. Yet we, as a society, are incompetent at making sense of the strangers we come across. Moctezuma came through the center of the street, attended by two lords, one upon his right, and the other upon his left hand, one of whom was the same nobleman who, as I have mentioned, came to meet me in a litter; and the other was the brother of Moctezuma, lord of the city of Iztapalapa, which I had left the same day; all three were dressed in the same manner, except that Moctezuma wore shoes, while the others were without them. In today’s world, people often find themselves in encounters like that between Cortés and Montezuma—interactions with complete strangers. It is true I have some things of gold, which my ancestors have left me; all that I have is at your service whenever you wish it. Why was Cortés able to conquer Montezuma and the Aztecs so easily? The problem at the heart of the two puzzles is that people assume that they can make sense of others based on relatively simple strategies. When Montezuma Met Cortés The True Story of the Meeting That Changed History (Audiobook CD) : Restall, Matthew : The meeting of Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés and Aztec emperor Montezuma is often seen as the meeting between a military genius and a coward. Cortés also told them that one of the objects for which our great Emperor had sent us to their country was to abolish human sacrifices and the other evil rites which they practiced." If our society is to avoid failed interactions between strangers, we must learn to: Most importantly, we must learn not to blame the stranger when an encounter goes awry, but to look into how our own instincts might have played a part, as well. Barnum Taught Us. On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. At the time I advanced to speak to Moctezuma, I took off from myself a collar of pearls and glass diamonds, and put it around his neck. Amanda received her Master's Degree in Education from the University of Pennsylvania. "On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. I answered him in respect to all that he had said, expressing my acknowledgments, and adding whatever the occasion seemed to demand, especially endeavoring to confirm him in the belief that your Majesty was the sovereign they had looked for; and after this he took his leave, and having gone, we were liberally supplied with fowls, bread, fruits, and other things required for the use of our quarters. 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When these were brought, Moctezuma turned, towards me and put them round my neck; but then returned along the street in the order already described, until he reached a very large and splendid palace, in which we were to be quartered, which had been fully prepared for our reception. There are three major strategies that people use to make sense of strangers: These three strategies ultimately fail because they operate under the assumption that simple clues are enough evidence of a stranger’s internal thoughts or intentions. And the Spaniards looked at him, each examining him closely. In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses “the Meeting”—as Restall dubs their first encounter—as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. There are two major puzzles about interacting with strangers, like the interaction of Cortés and Montezuma, that this book will attempt to answer. Three decades after Columbus, the Spaniards finally reached the long-imagined realms of gold. Cortes on Meeting Moctezuma From Cortés, Second Letter, 85–89 The Spaniards arrive at Tenochtitlan, the great city constructed on an island in Lake Texcoco. On 8 November 1519, Moctezuma met Cortés on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlán and the two leaders exchanged gifts. The meeting of Cortés and Montezuma shows why they often result in failed interactions with strangers. 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Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. On the 500th anniversary of Cortés’ meeting with Montezuma II, the conquistador deserves a reconsideration, not cancellation. When we had passed the bridge, the Señor Moctezuma came out to receive us, attended by about two hundred nobles, all barefooted and dressed in livery, or a peculiar garb of fine cotton, richer than is usually worn; they came in two processions in close proximity to the houses on each side of the street, which is very wide and beautiful, and so straight that you can see from one end of it to the other, although it is two thirds of a league in length, having on both sides large and elegant houses and temples. The city is connected to the rest of the land by several causeways.]. Your email address will not be published. In our modern, seemingly borderless world, we have no choice but to interact with strangers, which started, effectively, with Cortés and Montezuma. When Montezuma spoke, he chose to portray false humility. A mural at the Museo de la Ciudad de México depicts the … Drawing on rare There came to meet me at this place [on a causeway] nearly a thousand of the principal inhabitants of the great city, all uniformly dressed according to their custom in very rich costumes; and as soon as they had come within speaking distance, each one, as he approached me, performed a salutation in much use among them, by placing his hand upon the ground and kissing it; and thus I was kept waiting about an hour, until all had performed the ceremony. Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: Is It Working? They had to go through a long and complicated chain of translation to communicate with each other. On November 8, 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortés first met Montezuma, the Aztec emperor, at the entrance to the capital city of Tenochtitlan. We’ll cover how Cortés and Montezuma met, and look at how this meeting between two people of completely different backgrounds, mindsets, and assumptions is indicative of misreadings of strangers that are common today. After having presented these to me, he sat down on another piece of carpet they had placed for him near me, and being seated he discoursed as follows: "It is now a long time since, by means of written records, we learned from our ancestors that neither myself nor any of those who inhabit this region were descended from its original inhabitants, but from strangers who emigrated hither from a very distant land; and we have also learned that a prince, whose vassals they all were, conducted our people into these parts, and then returned to his native land. She’s published dozens of articles and book reviews spanning a wide range of topics, including health, relationships, psychology, science, and much more. “Our Lord, you are weary. First meeting of Hernán Cortés and Aztec leader Montezuma II. In this way l was for six days amply provided with all that was necessary, and visited by many of the nobility. Why does meeting a stranger face-to-face sometimes make it harder to make sense of that person than it would be without meeting them at all? Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma, and the Fall of Old Mexico - Ebook written by Hugh Thomas. Cortés captured, imprisoned, killed, and desecrated Montezuma’s remains. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Conquest: Cortes, Montezuma… Drawing on rare primary sources and overlooked accounts by conquistadors and Aztecs alike, Restall supplies a … According to an Aztec legend, the god Quetzalcoatlwas to return to Mexico in 1519. He made the emperor his prisoner, taking control of the city and forcing Montezuma into the role of a puppet king. They had never seen a city as grand or a culture as drastically different from their own. 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They walked on foot, then mounted Your email address will not be published. Aztec accounts of the event, compiled by Miguel Leon-Portillo shortly after and published as The Broken Spears, claim that Moctezuma (also Montezuma) believed Cortes was a god. They had never seen a city as grand or a culture as drastically different from their own. In a departure from traditional tellings, When Montezuma Met Cortés uses "the Meeting"--as Restall dubs their first encounter--as the entry point into a comprehensive reevaluation of both Cortés and Montezuma. When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting That Changed History, by Matthew Restall, Ecco, New York, 2018, $35 Historian Restall of Pennsylvania State University has delivered an exhaustively researched, forcefully argued and … That was how he communicated his nobility and power. But why? Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . Montezuma later died in captivity. Throughout human history, the vast majority of human interactions occurred between neighbors, relatives, or people that had at least some things in common, such as worshipping the same God. Cortés resembled the god’s description from the legend. Paul Farmer, Partners in Health, & Healthcare Access, How Did Early Humans Communicate? The houses you see are of stone and lime and earth. Montezuma’s native language, Nahuatl, was a reverential mode of speech. Shortform summary of "Talking to Strangers". His aim is to reassess the process of simplification by which Cortés, in his letters to King Carlos I (also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire), justified the permanent occupation of Mexico and gave it … Drawing on rare Encontre diversos livros escritos por Upon meeting the Aztec ruler Montezuma II and discovering the capital, Tenochtitlán, Cortés and his men were in awe. In When Montezuma Met Cortés, the American historian Matthew Restall examines documents concerning the military conflict that set the Aztecs in opposition to the Spanish empire in 1520. Thinking that the god had returned, … Upon meeting the Aztec ruler Montezuma II and discovering the capital, Tenochtitlán, Cortés and his men were in awe. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In When Montezuma Met Cortés, Restall succeeds in deconstructing the traditional narrative of European military superiority overwhelming a naive and barbarous indigenous ruler. By looking at some stories from world history and recent news, you’ll begin to understand the strategies people use to translate the words and intentions of strangers. Moctezuma gave Cortés the gift of an Aztec calendar, one disc of crafted gold and another of silver. Compre online When Montezuma Met Cortés: The True Story of the Meeting that Changed History, de Restall, Matthew na Amazon. On any given day … The result? But when it comes to strangers, nothing is as simple as it seems, as we’ve seen with Cortés and Montezuma. And since you are in your own proper land and your own house, rest and refresh yourselves after the toils of your journey, and the conflicts in which you have been engaged, which have been brought upon you, as I well know, by all the people from Puntunchan to this place; and I am aware that the Cempoallans and Tlaxcalans have told you much evil of me, but believe no more than you see with your own eyes, especially from those who are my enemies, some of whom were once my subjects, and having rebelled upon your arrival, make these statements to ingratiate themselves in your favor. Come across capital, Tenochtitlán, Cortés and Montezuma Access, how did the meeting that Changed History de... A culture as drastically different from their own, the Spaniards were welcomed and with. 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